Replacing Natural Products

 
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Given that a certain natural product needs an alternate means of production, how does industry go about this? There are two primary ways to replace the natural resources used in industrial and consumer products.

The first is to find a new way to synthesise the same material: find another way of obtaining the same product. This is very common today in drug synthesis. Often new drugs are developed from a naturally occuring product but either to enhance it's effectivenss or to relieve pressure on the plant species (as is usually the case) that the drug is harvested from new means of synthesising the drug and anaogues of the drug are developed.

The second way to replace natural products is to develop new materials that while not being the same material chemically (ie not synthetic "clones") have the same desired physical properties.