Relation to Syllabus


9.5 Option - Industrial Chemistry

Contextual Outline

Industry uses chemical reactions to produce chemicals for use by society. This module develops the ideas that some chemicals have been produced to replace naturally occurring chemicals that are no longer available or are not economically viable. The concepts of qualitative and quantitative equilibrium are further developed, as these are important processes in industry.

Industrial chemical processes cover the full range of reactions but concentration on some case studies is sufficient to illustrate the range of reactions and the role of chemists and chemical engineers involved in these processes. This allows some insight into the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the chemical industry and allows a consideration of the analytical processes and monitoring that is necessary for efficient production.

5. Saponification is an important organic industrial process

Students learn to:
describe saponification as the hydrolysis in basic solution of fats and oils to produce glycerol and salts of fatty acids
describe the conditions under which saponification can be performed in the school laboratory and compare these with industrial preparation of soap
account for the cleaning action of soap by describing its molecular structure
explain that soap, water and oil together form an emulsion with the soap acting as an emulsifier
distinguish between soaps and synthetic detergents in terms of:
  • the structure of the molecule
  • chemical composition effect in hard water
distinguish between anionic, cationic and non-ionic synthetic detergents in terms of:
  • chemical composition
  • uses

perform a first-hand investigation to carry out saponification and test the product
gather, process and present information from secondary sources to identify a range of fats and oils used for soap-making
perform a first-hand investigation to gather information and describe the properties of a named emulsion and relate these properties to its uses
perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the effect of soap as an emulsifying agent
solve problems and use available evidence to discuss, using examples, the environmental impacts of the use of soaps and detergents

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