Common Functional Groups

 
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There are a number of other arrangements of atoms within molecules that tend to give different properties to the molecules. The name given to these arrangements is functionalities or functional groups.

The table below lists the main functional groups.

alkene alkene
alkyne alkyne
arene arene
halide - chloride, fluoride, bromide, iodide halide
alcohol alcohol
ether ether
amine amine
nitrile nitrile
nitro nitro
sulfide sulfide
{sulfoxide, sulfone} sulfoxide sulfone
thiol (aka mercaptan) thiol
aldehyde aldehyde
ketone ketone
carboxylic acid acid
ester ester
amide amide
acid chloride acid chloride
acid anhydride acid anhydride